January, 20, 2022
As per the data released by the Department of Census and Statistics, domestic economic activity that was disrupted with the outbreak of the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and related mitigative measures is estimated to have contracted by 1.5 per cent, year-on-year, during the third quarter of 2021. However, economic activity towards the latter part of 2021 appears to have gathered momentum as several leading indicators point towards activity returning to normalcy along with the successful vaccination drive of the Government. Accordingly, the economy is expected to have recorded a growth of around 4.0 per cent in 2021.
With the normalisation of global economic activity, a notable improvement in export performance was observed, with monthly exports remaining in excess of US dollars 1 billion, consecutively since June 2021. Meanwhile, expenditure on imports increased significantly, partly reflecting the increased international prices, the demand for intermediate goods, and a more than expected demand for consumer goods. The increase in imports was also underpinned by the availability of low cost credit, which led the trade deficit to widen to pre-pandemic levels in 2021. Meanwhile, developments in the tourism sector appear to be promising with the influx of tourists in recent months. Although inflows in the form of workers’ remittances have reduced somewhat in the latter half of 2021, the introduction of special incentive schemes and the actions taken by the authorities to curb illegal fund transfers have generated renewed interest in routing funds through formal channels. The Sri Lanka rupee depreciated by 7.0 per cent against the US dollar in 2021 and has been broadly stable thus far in 2022. At the same time, the Central Bank was able to fulfil the timely settlement of the International Sovereign Bond (ISB) of US dollars 500 million on 18 January 2022. As of end 2021, the gross official reserves were estimated at US dollars 3.1 billion.
Credit extended to the private sector, which slowed down during September and October 2021, has picked up recently, partly reflecting the increased credit flows to finance imports. In the meantime, credit obtained by the public sector from the banking system, particularly net credit to the Government, continued to expand. Despite the recent deceleration observed due to the decline in net foreign assets of the banking system, with the significant expansion in domestic credit, the growth of broad money (M2b) remained elevated by end November 2021. Meanwhile, most market lending rates have adjusted upwards, while deposit rates have also increased albeit at a slower pace. Further, yields on government securities have increased amidst enhanced market subscriptions at primary auctions for government securities.
Inflationary pressures in the domestic front continued to be fuelled by supply side disruptions, upward adjustments to administered domestic prices, and the strengthening of underlying demand conditions in the economy as reflected in the rise in core inflation. Such supply driven price pressures are expected to be transitory, although the possible build-up of demand driven inflationary pressures may compel the adoption of proactive monetary policy measures, which will also help in managing inflation expectations.
In consideration of the current and expected macroeconomic developments, the Monetary Board of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka, at its meeting held on 19 January 2022, decided to adopt several policy measures with the view to strengthening macroeconomic stability. Accordingly, the Monetary Board decided to:
The Monetary Board was of the view that the above measures will curtail the possible build-up of underlying demand pressures in the economy, which would also help ease pressures in the external sector, thus promoting greater macroeconomic stability. In keeping with this policy stance, the Central Bank expects a corresponding increase in interest rates, particularly in deposit rates, thereby encouraging savings, while discouraging excessive consumption, which also fuels imports. Therefore, financial institutions are urged to swiftly pass on this increase to deposit rates of the customers. Moreover, the anticipated adjustment in market interest rates will facilitate the reduction in the Treasury bill holdings of the Central Bank through increased market subscriptions, as enunciated in the Six-Month Road Map for Ensuring Macroeconomic and Financial System Stability. Meanwhile, the materialisation of the expected foreign exchange inflows through bilateral arrangements and other import financing arrangements with friendly countries are expected to ensure a healthy level of gross official reserves in the period ahead and further strengthen the external sector in the economy.
|Monetary Policy Decision:||Policy rates increased and SRR unchanged|
|Standing Deposit Facility Rate (SDFR)||5.50%|
|Standing Lending Facility Rate (SLFR)||6.50%|
|Bank Rate (automatically adjusted with SLFR)||9.50%|
|Statutory Reserve Ratio (SRR)||4.00%|